There are two books from Portugal, where Jews introduced the art of typography. Nahmanides’ commentary on the Pentateuch, from the press of Eliezer Toledano, was in 1489 the first book in any language printed in Lisbon (168). The biblical book of Judges (Shoftim) with Aramaic Targum and the commentaries of Kimhi and Gersonides, printed by d’Ortas in Leiria in 1494, came out shortly before the expulsion of the Jews from Portugal (33). (D’Ortas, a native of France, had previously printed the Latin astronomical tables used by Columbus.) In a category of its own is the code of Jewish law, Jacob ben Asher’s Arba‘ah Turim, printed in Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1493, of which a fragment of two leaves is offered here. This was the first book in any language printed outside of Europe or in the Ottoman Empire, generations before books in Armenian, Greek, or Syriac appeared in the Levant. Indeed, it is the first book in any language ever printed in the entire Islamic world, over two centuries before the first Turkish work in Arabic type came off a press in Istanbul. As such it is one of the great monuments in the history of typography (112). DELUXE PRINTING ON VELLUM. The present catalogue features the broadest selection of deluxe copies of Hebrew books – books printed on vellum, on blue or coloured paper, or on large or regal paper – ever offered in the history of Hebraica auctions. The early Hebrew printers issued special copies of their books on vellum, or parchment, the choice and most durable material for books since antiquity. Valmadonna’s holdings of Hebrew printing on vellum outranked all other collections except those of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York and the British Library. Among the nine deluxe copies on vellum offered here are Mishnah Pirke Avot with the commentary of Maimonides and Sforno (Bologna 1540), extracted from the Mahzor of the Roman rite (161); the Ashkenazic liturgy Seder Tefilot (Mantua 1558), with instructions in Yiddish (146); Sefer ha-hashlamah, Talmudic novellae on Bava Kama (Paris 1885), a unique copy on vellum prepared for Baron David Günzburg (59); Nahmanides’ Igeret ha-kodesh on sexual morality (Amsterdam 1928), a last flourish of deluxe Hebrew printing in Amsterdam, and this not held in the British Library (171). One extraordinary lot (34) includes two copies of the excessively rare Salonika Pentateuch of 1520, one on vellum and one on paper. Zedner wrote of the vellum copy in the British Library: “Only one other copy known, which is on paper.” BLUE AND OTHER COLOURED PAPER. The employ of blue paper for special copies, which began with Bomberg in Renaissance Italy, has a longer history in Hebrew books than in any other printing tradition of East or West. In collecting these deluxe copies Lunzer was in the company of just one other bibliophile, David Oppenheim, Chief Rabbi of Prague, whose celebrated library was acquired in 1829 by Oxford. Valmadonna exceeded all other public and private libraries in the world in its 16th-century exempla, and held more from 18th-century Amsterdam, where the book arts reached their zenith, than any of the great public libraries of Europe and the Americas. Of the 16 books printed on blue and other coloured papers offered here, ten are from the 16th century (more than at Oxford!), the earliest, printed by Bomberg in 1545, on blue paper (170), and the other, printed by Giustinian in 1546, on chocolate brown or pink, a tint of which only a few instances are known (22). Other 16th-century blue-paper books come from Cremona, Mantua and Sabbioneta (78, 104, 145). Three books on blue paper with wide margins can be considered double-deluxe: Nahmanides’ commentary on the Pentateuch, printed in Venice in 1545 (170); Eleazar of Worms’ Sefer ha-rokeah printed in Cremona in 1557 (71); and the Mishnah Seder Kodshim printed in Mantua in 1562 (163). Of three blue-paper books from 18th-century Amsterdam (19, 64, 148), the first is from the press of Isaac de Cordoba, considered by Cecil Roth the first American Jewish printer. A sole example printed on blue-green paper in Prague in 1735 is one of very few books on coloured paper from this city, all the more exceptional as it comes from the library of Jonathan Eybeschuetz, then in Metz in France, and one can only speculate whether the greenish paper hints daringly at Sabbatianism (196). LARGE OR WIDE-MARGINED PAPER. Another deluxe medium is regal, thick, large or wide-margined paper – the “charta magna” (normally white) to which Steinschneider drew attention in his Oxford catalogue. An astonishing 26 volumes on this special paper from the earliest days of printing up to the 18th century are offered here. Among them are four Neapolitan incunables (29-31, 123) and one printed in Soncino (172), before the departure of the eponymous family from this most famous Hebrew printing town of the 15th century. Especially attractive is the wide-margined Kol Bo (Rimini 1525-1526) printed by Gershom Soncino, with the famous tower of Soncino on its frontispiece (131).