Hebraistic works include the pentaglot Book of Proverbs (Wittenberg 1564) with texts in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and German (41), and Plantin’s triglot Pentateuch (Antwerp 1573) in Hebrew, Greek, and Syriac in Hebrew characters (43). Surenhuis’ celebrated Hebrew-Latin Mishnah (Amsterdam 1698-1703) is one of the most elegant of all such bilingual texts (165). The full extent of the Hebrew-Latin bilingual corpus is an uncharted area of Hebrew bibliography and booklore. Jews’ involvement with Latin printing goes back more than five centuries. Gershom Soncino’s edition of Petrarch (Fano 1503), dedicated to a Borgia, is one of the first of the hundred books he issued in Latin, Greek and Italian, and among the first non-Hebrew books printed by a non-converted Jew (197). The type was designed by Francesco Griffo who also cut type for Aldus. Several early works of Italian Judaica are Mitsvat nashim (Venice 1616), i.e. women’s precepts in Italian (204), and Simone Luzzatto’s Discorso (Venice 1638), a defense of the Jews against expulsion (110). ILLUSTRATION AND PLATES. Illustration or graphic art of any sort is rare in Hebrew books. From the early 16th century, most of the decoration of Hebrew books was on the title-page, of which elaborate frames, woodcut borders, portals or historiated arches, as well as decorated initials, can be found here in abundance, not least a woodcut border by Holbein the Younger (113). The Valmadonna copies of illustrated Hebrew books are exceptional in their condition. Illustrations, diagrams, and miscellaneous graphic elements include pictorial images (80-83), signs of the Zodiac (105, 193), the Temple or its plans (38, 55, 106, 162-63), scientific and astronomical illustration (6, 68, 175, 182), body or animal parts (203), kabbalistic illustration or diagrammatic configurations (65, 67, 162-63, 149), hands (145, 148, 203), maps (11, 82-84, 86), a portrait of the author (68), a coat of arms (186), and printers’ devices (114, 133, 138, 148, 182). Especially notable among the illustrated works is the bilingual Hebrew and Italian Bible printed by Bragadin for Foà, Arba‘ah ve-‘esrim (Venice 1739-1741). The text is accompanied by four spectacular engraved plates by Francesco Griselini, otherwise famed for his engraved title-pages and especially for Esther scrolls, which are among the greatest treasures of Jewish art. The two volumes of this Bible are further distinguished by their fine binding (57). Also of interest are the fold-out plates, often missing in other copies. Maps of the Holy Land, included as fold-out plates in several of the Haggadahs, are among the earliest Hebrew maps (82-84). The first edition of Shemesh leshon ha-kodesh (Bergamo 1591) has fold-out grammatical charts (76); Surenhuis’ Hebrew-Latin Mishnah includes some engraved folding plates (165). The first edition of Münster’s illustrated astronomical treatise Hokhmat ha-mazalot (Basle 1527) has fold-out plates not found in most copies (175). Hand-drawn folding charts are bound into the 1562 Mantua Mishnah (162). BINDINGS. Since his first exposure to Italian Hebraica, Lunzer became enamoured not only of the history of Hebrew printing but also of the external aesthetics of Hebrew books, long terra incognita (or terra nullius) of Jewish booklore. He appreciated, collected and commissioned fine bindings. Examples of old contemporary bindings are Sforno’s philosophical Or ‘amim (Bologna 1537), printed by the Silkweavers and elaborately tooled (190), and the Five Scrolls with Targum (Venice 1590), in elaborately gilt 17th-century calf (46). For decades the premier bookbinder in England, Bernard Middleton, one of the greatest craft bookbinders in the world, acted as private conservator to the Trust, and many books in the library benefited from his skill. PROVENANCE. Great libraries are built on great libraries. The 1520 Salonika Pentateuch of 1520, an extreme rarity, is the Salman Schocken copy (34). Another Salonika edition, the Early Prophets with Kimhi’s commentary of 1535, comes from the library of Dr Israel Mehlman (36). The Pirke Avot on vellum (Bologna 1540), extracted from the Silkweavers’ Mahzor, was owned by Scholem Asch (161). The Athias’ Tesoro de Preceptos (Venice 1627) has the bookplate of Mayer Sulzberger (93). The Boccaccio in vayber taytsh (Amsterdam 1710) was owned by the Yiddish bibliophile Judah A. Joffe (60). Several volumes are connected with distinguished rabbis. The Ibn Adret on blue-green paper from the library of Jonathan Eybeschuetz is noted above. The biblical concordance Me’ir Netiv (Basle 1581) has the signature of the head of the Beth Din (rabbinic court) of Warburg, the ancestral home of the banking dynasty. The wide-margined copy of Rapa’s Minhah Belulah (Verona 1594), with its exquisite coat of arms on the last leaf, comes from the library of Clarence de Sola, son of the first Rabbi of Montreal (186). The most important of Manasseh Ben Israel’s Bibles (Amsterdam 1631-1635) bears the bookplate of Nathan Marcus Adler, Chief Rabbi of the British Empire (150).