many Bibles, most significant is the seventh edition of the Biblia Rabbinica (Amsterdam 1724-1725); a large folio on regal paper with red-tinted edges, it is the first rabbinic Bible produced entirely by Jews (56). Also notable are two editions, in multi-volume sets, of the classic rabbinic text, the Babylonian Talmud. Froben’s Basle edition was intended to replace the crateloads of Talmuds burned in Venice in the mid-16th century (200). The first Amsterdam edition of the Talmud, printed by Benveniste in the 17th century and important for its uncensored text, is in an exquisite original binding (201). Two items of Americana are the most important early historiographical works in this field. Joseph ha-Kohen’s chronicle Divre ha-yamim le-malkhe tsorfat u-malkhe bet Otoman ha-Togar [History of the kings of France and the Ottoman Turks] (Sabbioneta 1553-54) gives the earliest Hebrew account of the discovery of the new world (12). Farissol’s geographic treatise Igeret Orhot ‘olam (Venice 1586-1587) has an entire chapter devoted to America, the first such treatment in a Hebrew book, with a shield-like diagram of America (11). Of scientific texts, Münster’s Hokhmat ha-mazalot, Delmedigo’s Elim, and the Margaliot tovah, all mentioned above, stand out. The Adelkind-Foà edition of Maimonides’ Moreh Nevukhim (Sabbioneta 1553) has an appended discussion by Moses Provençal on the Theorem of Apollonius (166). Kabbalistic works, most from the 16th century (9, 21, 77, 103, 117), include deluxe copies (104, 182) and some graphic elements (65, 149). Also on offer here (aside from the substantial reference collection described below) are several of the earliest Hebrew indexes: two editions of Figo’s Zikhron Torat Mosheh (Constantinople 1553 and Prague 1623) on Talmud and Midrash (73-74), and Florentin’s Doresh Mishpat (Salonika 1655) on Jewish law (75). JEWISH LANGUAGES. Valmadonna held some of the rarest editions of texts in the various Hebrew-character Jewish languages, including Aramaic. Of Hebrew Bibles accompanied by the Aramaic translation, the Pentateuch with Targum, Rashi and Nahmanides printed in Salonika in 1520 is considered rarer than incunables, which it resembles typographically (34). Notable for Old Yiddish are the Ashkenazic liturgy on vellum (Mantua 1558) with instructions in the vernacular (141); the Cremona Pentateuch of 1560 with Yiddish translation of Rashi (40); Boccaccio in Yiddish (Amsterdam 1710), an early instance of world literature in this language (60); Yosipon in vayber-taytsh (Amsterdam 1771), illustrated throughout (116); and a rare set of the Diskursn (Amsterdam 1797-98), a series of polemical pamphlets between the old and new Jewish communities (13). The illustrated Venice Haggadahs of 1599 and 1601 with Judeo-Italian, Yiddish and Ladino are the most polyglot Jewish texts ever published (80, 81). The Amsterdam Haggadah of 1712 with Yiddish and Ladino, accompanied by copperplate engravings throughout, is one of few Judeo-Spanish texts printed in Hebrew characters at Amsterdam (84). The Ladino translation of Joseph Karo’s Shulhan ha-panim (Venice 1713) is a classic of Judeo-Spanish literature (94). The daily Sephardic liturgy printed on red-coloured paper in Vienna in 1838, which contains a kabbalistic device as well as some Ladino text, is a veritable trifecta of peculiarities (149). The Mikhlol yofi (Constantinople 1548-49) is known for its glosses, borrowed from Kimhi, in Judeo- Provençal, a language in which there are few printed texts. SPANISH, PORTUGUESE, LATIN, ITALIAN. Valmadonna’s holdings of Spanish and Portuguese Judaica, books printed in western and southern Europe for use by communities of former Marranos, rivalled that of the research libraries in Amsterdam, Madrid and Lisbon. The numerous examples offered here include publications from Amsterdam, Venice, Leiden and Livorno, such as Altara’s Libro de Mantenimiento de la Alma (Venice 1609), a translation of the Shulhan Arukh (92); the Spanish Bible ascribed to Manasseh Ben Israel (Amsterdam 1629), a revision of the Ferrara version (48); Isaac Athias’ Tesoro de Preceptos (Venice 1627), on the commandments (93); Isaac Costa’s Conjeturas Sagradas (Leiden 1722), a treatise on the Early Prophets by the rabbi of Bayonne (95); Proops’ Spanish Bible (Amsterdam 1718) with engraved title- pages (55); Oracion (Livorno 1751), a Bar Mitsvah speech (96); Manasseh Ben Israel’s famous Conciliador (Amsterdam 1632), bound together with the Latin version (1633) with a Neo-Latin preface by Zacutus Lusitanus (97). An unusual aspect of the present offering is the large number of bilingual Hebrew-Latin texts, a convention of Renaissance and later Christian Hebraist scholarship, often produced with the assistance of learned Jews. This is the broadest selection of works by the humanist Münster and his elder Levita ever offered at auction (35, 37-38, 130, 135, 137, 174-78). Most of Münster’s books were issued in Basle, which became over the course of the 16th century a major centre of humanist Hebrew printing. His Dikduk de-lishan arami or Chaldaica Grammatica (Basle 1527) has richly historiated initials (177). His Hebrew-Latin Mikdash Hashem (1534-1535) was the first Hebrew Bible printed in Basle (35). Münster’s Hebrew-Latin edition of the Ikarim (Worms 1529) is the only Hebrew book ever printed in the birthplace of Rashi (174). Levita’s apostate grandson Vittorio Eliano was involved in the printing in 1578 of Sefer Bereshit (Genesis), one of two Hebrew books produced in Rome in the second half of the 16th century (44). Other 16th-century