The other 16th-century exempla come mainly from Cremona, Mantua, Ferrara and Verona in Italy, one from Isny in Bavaria, and the rest from the East. The Midrash on Psalms (Constantinople 1512) is from the earliest period of printing in the Ottoman capital (159). Another two from Constantinople were issued by Gershom’s son Eliezer Soncino (102, 191). Three books on large paper from Salonika in the 1560s may reflect a pronounced Ottoman interest in special papers in those years (28, 61, 79). Delmedigo’s scientific treatise Sefer Elim printed by Manasseh Ben Israel (Amsterdam 1628-29), one of the most lavishly illustrated scientific works in Hebrew, stands out on wide-margined paper (68). Two others from 18th-century Amsterdam are on so-called “regal” (royal) paper (26, 151). Two books from Venice, one of the 16th century (194) and the other of the 18th (147), are on thick paper. MARGINALIA. A number of books offered here, especially of the 16th century, feature hand-written commentary or marginal annotation. Several have marginalia throughout or extensive annotation (79, 119, 136, 147, 164, 178, 179). Among them is one with a hand-coloured title-page (53), two with annotation in Greek and Latin (137, 179), and several with notes in more than one hand (4, 182). Two of the annotated copies are printed on blue paper (164, 189), and four on wide-margined paper (30, 79, 147, 182). The combination of manuscript and print, of which these are all good examples, is a little-studied area of Hebrew booklore. UNICA. The Trust held many unique, uniquely complete, or excessively rare copies of early Hebraica, of which a number of examples are offered here. Among copies flawless in their completeness are Kimhi’s Shorashim (Naples 1491), wide-margined and with a rare final leaf (123); Shahor’s Arba‘ah Turim (Augsburg 1540) with a rare 2-leaf index which according to Steinschneider is often missing (113); Isserles’ Torat ha-‘olah (Prague 1569-70) with the rare final leaf, missing in most copies (108); and the collection of Pentateuch super- commentaries Margaliyot tovah (Amsterdam 1722) with an astronomical plate at the end, usually lacking (18). The afore-mentioned copy of Delmedigo’s Elim includes a rare introductory leaf in Latin (68). According to one bibliographer, only one other copy of of Fagius’ Christological Hebrew-Latin Birkat ha-mazon (Isny 1542) was known to exist (158), and Karo’s Shulhan ‘Arukh (Cracow 1583-1586) is unrecorded in a standard reference work (121). VARIANTS. One of the most difficult but fecund areas of bibliography is the comparison of variant copies. Lunzer attempted to acquire - and keep - variant copies of the same book, whose discrepant texts are often important for intellectual history. Several lots furnish both variants together, three instances curiously from Mantua. One of the copies of the Sabbioneta-Mantua Mishnah of 1562 includes a set of variant leaves (162), as well as folding charts added in manuscript. The text of the introduction to Zarza’s Mekor Hayim (Mantua 1559) differs between copies (208). The Ashkenazi Mahzor printed in three towns (Sabbioneta- Cremona-Venice 1556-60) comes with eight additional leaves with variant mise-en-page (146). The two copies of De Rossi’s Me’or ‘Enayim (Mantua 1574) differ not only in text (the author changed statements perceived heretical) but one copy contains six (!) additional unnumbered leaves (67). The title-page of the Amsterdam Haggadah of 1695, the first Haggadah with copper-engraved illustrations, exists in two variants (82-83). So many variant versions have never been offered together in an auction. FIRST EDITIONS. Lunzer was fond of quoting a dictum of his friend the historian Jacob Katz: “Ich lese nur aus erste Ausgaben” [I only read first editions]. Valmadonna was replete in first editions of classic texts, no fewer than 70 of which are offered here, among them works by Abarbanel, Baruch and Eleazar of Worms, Gikatillia, Isaac of Düren, Moses Isserles, Solomon Luria, Sforno, and many others. Several first editions are deluxe copies on blue (71, 104, 189), others on large paper (28, 61, 159, 182, 191, 194). Of particular note is the 1751 pseudo-Amsterdam (actually Altona) edition of Emden’s Ets Avot (72). Vital’s Keter Torah (Constantinople 1536) is an uncut copy (203). One of the Spanish first editions of the 17th century (92, 93, 97) is Manasseh Ben Israel’s Conciliador. LITURGIES. It was Lunzer’s long-expressed wish to prepare a volume entitled, à la Berliner, “Aus meiner Bibliothek,” drawing attention to Valmadonna’s rarissima. In particular he wanted to devote a volume to sundry and exotic liturgies, especially unica and ignota [unique copies and unknown books], as Berliner styled them. Happily, the present catalogue lists more early and rare liturgies than have ever appeared in a single auction before. Among them are deluxe copies on vellum or coloured paper (145, 141, 148, 149), large paper for use by the cantor (147), with instructions in Yiddish (141), with a kabbalistic device (149), and the first prayer book printed in Jerusalem (150), in addition to the above-cited first printed prayer book from Casalmaggiore, the Mahzor printed in three towns, and special Hagadot. BIBLES, TALMUDS, AMERICANA, SCIENCES, KABBALAH, INDEXES. This sale of Valmadonna treasures features special or particular copies in many areas of Hebrew literature from the first centuries of printing. Of the